. . . poetical forms
also called hokkua
Japanese form with seventeen syllables in three lines. The first line generally has five syllables the second seven, and the third five. Haiku can vary from the line and syllable count. Elements of the haiku include imagery, juxtapos of images, economy of words, immediacy, and flash of illumination. Haiku grew out of the linked verse renga.
|Horatian Ode||named after the Roman poet Horace
an ode that has regular matching stanzas, often quatrains
|how-to poem||a poem that gives a set of instructions, often as a set of commands. The directions need to be clear, but also poetical.
example: Jack Bedell’s “Summer, Handfishing”
|irregular ode||see Cowleyan ode|
|idyll||(eye’ –dull or eye’ –dil)
from the Greek for little picture
also spelled idyla short poem that creates a picture of rural life where the landscape is idealized; it can also be a short descriptive series of poems that revolve around a central figure. It is similar to eclogue and pastoral.
|imagist||(im’ –ah –gist)
from the Latin for likeness, semblance, picture
a short poem that employs one or more of the five senses to convey meaning and emotion: visual (see), audible (hear), tactile (feel/touch), smell, taste
example: Alison Pelegrin’s “Bird Inside”
example: Julia Constant’s “Help!”
example: Gabriel Cox’s “Hurricane”
|Italian Sonnet||(sahn’ –et)
from the Italian for little song or from Medieval Latin for murmur
also called the Petrarchan Sonnet
not created by Petrarch, but perfected by him. An Italian sonnet is a fourteen line poem with an octave (8 lines) and a sestet (6 lines). The octave has an abbaabba rhyme scheme. The sestet has more variation in its rhyme scheme—the more common are cdcdcd, cdecde, or cdedce. A sonnet is often organized as an argument, with the first quatrain of the octave stating the theme or claim, and the second quatrain developing the theme or stating reasons for the claim. The first tercet in the sestet is a reflection or example of the theme or claim, and the final tercet is a logical conclusion to the poem.
|kyrielle||(keer –ee –el’)
a French form written in quatrains in which each line has eight syllables and the fourth line is a refrain. There are two rhyme schemes, a rhyming refrain, of abaB, or a ron-rhyming refrain of aaaR
|light verse||poetry that is humorous in tone and that usually rhymes. The subject, tone, and attitudes are light. Not all comic or witty poems are necessarily light verse, which some consider to be doggerel. see Clerihew
|limerick||a light verse poem with five lines that follows an aabba rhyme scheme. The first, second, and fifth lines each have three stresses, while the third and fourth lines have two stresses. The meter is often anapestic or amphibrachic.|
|list poem||also called a litany
a poem that catalogs or names a series of events, actions, or emotions and often contains images and specific details of the items listed
|litany||see list poem|
|lyric||from lyre, lyrics were originally sung or chantedone of the three main genres of poetry, the other two being narrative and dramatic.
a poem where the music or sound is foremost before story or drama. Lyric poems often express or suggest personal emotion.
example: Maxine Cassin’s “S A S E”
example: Rodger Kamenetz’s “Rye”